Cover of Organic Photoreceptors for Imaging Systems

Organic Photoreceptors for Imaging Systems

Paul M. Borsenberger, David F. Weiss

(1993) xvi + 447 pages

There have been many studies of photoelectronic phenomena in organic solids in the past three decades. These have resulted in a very considerable level of fundamental understanding of the relationships between the structure of these materials and the photoelectronic properties. This has led to the development of many new and improved materials for xerography. The purpose of this book is to review these developments. This book describes the use of organic photoreceptors for xerography. The xerographic process and the photoelectronic properties of organic materials are reviewed. The preparation of organic photoreceptors is described, followed by a review of the xerographic sensitometry of different classes of organic materials. The emphasis of the book is directed to the photoelectronic properties of organic solids and a comparison of these properties with the requirements of the xerographic process.

This unique reference covers in detail the preparation and application of current and emerging organic materials used as xerographic photoreceptors, emphasizing the photoelectronic properties of organic solids and evaluating their potential use in xerography. Reviewing the development of xerography and the steps in the xerographic process, Organic Photoreceptors for Imaging Systems summarizes the properties, advantages, and disadvantages of various classes of materials used as photoreceptors … descnbes methods of characterizing the sensitometry of xerographic photoreceptors …examines the physics and chemistry of photogeneration and charge transport processes . . . elucidates the sensitometry of different classes of organic materials . . .and much more!

With over 1750 recent bibliographic citations and more than 270 explanatory tables and figures, Organic Phdoreceptors for Imaging Systems is a practical resource for imaging scientists, optical engineers and physicists, organic chemists, materials scientists, and graduate-level and continuing-education students in these disciplines. The scope of this subject is such that it is limited the treatment to properties relevant to xerography. AC phenomena and charge transport in crystalline solids are not discussed. Spectroscopies, synthetic techniques, and chemical methods of characterization are discussed only in specific cases. Finally, photoreceptors used in current applications are not reviewed, nor is the patent literature discussed. While there are many references to patents in the book, the coverage is not intended to be inclusive.

Preface; Symbols and Nomenclature: Introduction: Early Developments:Electrophotographic Processes:Xerography:Alternative Processes:Summary:References:@ Xerographic Photoreceptors; Introduction; Chalcogenide Glasses; Organic Materials; Amorphous Silicon; Summary; References@ Charge Acceptance and Dark Discharge; Introduction; Models@ Charge Acceptance:Dark Discharge:Results; Summary; References@ Photoinduced Discharge; Introduction; Continuous Exposures@ Emission-Limited Discharge:Space-Charge-Limited Discharge:Flash Exposures; Trapping; Recombination; Sensitometry; References@ Photogeneration Theories; Introduction; Surface-Enhanced Exciton Dissociation; Geminate Recombination@ The Poole-Frenkel Effect:The Onsager Formalism:Time Dependent Models:Energetic and Positional Disorder:Summary; References@ Photogeneration in Organic Solids; Introduction; Results@ Phthalocyanines:Polyarylenes:Polymers:Other Materials of Interest:Summary; References@ Charge Tansport Theories; Introduction; Trapping and Kinetic Rate Arguments@ The Poole-Frenkel Effect:Kinetic Rate Models:The Dipole Trap:The Bassler Formalism; Polarons; Dispersive Transport@ The Einstein Relationship:The Scher-Montroll Formalism:Multiple Trapping:The Bassler Formalism:Other Arguments:Lattice Gas and Percolation; Summary; References@ Charge Transport in Polymers and Related Materials; Introduction; Hole Transport@ Arylalkanes:Arylamines:Hydrazones:Poly(phenylenevinylene)s:Polysilylenes (Polysilanes) and Polygermylenes:Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and Related Compounds:Pyrazolines:Other Materials of Interest:Electron Transport@ Diphenoquinones:Poly (N-vinylcarbazole): 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone Charge-Transfer Complexes:Other Materials of Interest:Bipolar Transport@ Aggregate Materials:Donor and Acceptor Doped Polymers:Other Materials of Interest:Summary; References@ Experimental Techniques; Introduction; Photogeneration Phenomena@ Transient Photocurrent Measurements:Photoinduced Discharge Measurements:Photoacoustical Measurements:Field-Enhanced Fluorescence Quenching Methods:Transport Phenomena@ Transient Photocurrent Measurements:Transient Photoinduced Discharge Measurements:Other Methods:Deconvolution Techniques:References:@ Photoreceptor Preparation I. Structure and Configuration; Fabrication Techniques@ Solvent Coating Techniques:Pigment Coating Techniques:Novel Fabrication Methods:Physical Characterization and Chemical Analysis References@ Photoreceptors; Introduction; Azo Pigments@ Synthesis and Characterization:Photoreceptors:Molecular Complexes@ Dye-Polymer Complexes:Charge-Transfer Complexes:Perylene Pigments@ Synthesis and Characterization:Photoreceptors:Phthalocyanine Pigments@ Synthesis and Characterization:Photoreceptors:Squaraine Pigments:Synthesis and Characterization:Photoreceptors:Other Materials of Interest:Summary:References@ Fatigue; Introduction; Results@ Trapping:Corona-Induced Phenomena:Effects of Humidity:Radiation-Induced Effects:Summary:References@ Summary and Future Requirements; References; Appendices; Index@ Polymers:Generation Materials:Transport Materials: