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book cover

Electrophotography and Development Physics, rev. 2nd Ed.

Lawrence B.Schein


xx + 362 pages

The most recent and thorough book on the predominant technology in the multi-billion dollar industry of printers, copiers, and fax machines. Analyzes practical approaches for different phases in the xerographic procedure. With a wide selection of photos, graphs, and plans for real copiers and printers already in production, this book provides an inclusive array of information for both the novice and the specialist. Major emphasis on the image development techniques used in commercial machines.

Technical history; copier market; printer market; alternative powder marking technologies.
The electrophotographic process
The six steps of electrophotography; implementation; interactions; subsystem choices.
The development step
Challenges; focus; descriptions.
Toner charging for two component development systems
Metal-metal contact; metal-insulator contact charging; insulator-insulator contact charging; toner-carrier charging.
Cascade development
Development mechanisms-airborne, contact, scavenging, electrode source; experimental work-solid area development, line development, background development; theory-airborne development, contact development.
Insulative magnetic brush development
Qualitative comparison of development mechanisms; the electric field; theories of solid area development-neutralization, field stripping, powder cloud, equilibrium, depletion, "complete theory"; solid area development experiments; line development; background development; improvements.
Conductive magnetic brush development
Initial theoretical ideas; experimental data and discussions; infinitely conductive theory; comparison with experiment; line development; background development.
Toner charging for monocomponent development systems
Induction charging; injection charging; contact charging; corona charging; charging methods for powder coating; other charging methods; traveling electric fields.
Monocomponent development
Aerosol or powder cloud development; early work; theory of monocomponent development; conductive toner; magnetic; insulative toner; nonmagnetic; insulative toner.
Liquid development
Material requirements; development theories; toner characteristics; recent developments.
Color electrophotography
History; image quality; gray scale; other challenges.
Update of chapters 1-10
copier market; printer market; alternative powder marking techniques; magnetography; ionography; transfer and toner adhesion; charge; transfer; clean; toner charging for two component development systems; insulator-insulator contact charging; surface state theory; charge control agents; charge measuring agents; life characteristics; effective dielectric constant; solid area development experiments; background development; infinitely conductive theroy; contact charging; theory of monocomponent development; conductive toner; nonmagnetic, insulative toner; toner charging; recent developments.