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Electrets, 3rd edition, vol. 2

R. Gerhard-Multhaupt ed.


xviii +338 pages

Vol. 2. Electrets have emerged as invaluable components in an ever increasing number of applications ranging from air filters to microphones. Volume 2 contains six chapters on the hot topics in electets providing a digest of the significant progress in electret research over the 11 years since the 1987 publication of the second edition. This volume 2 compendium is based on special issues of the IEEE Transactions on Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, with extensive updates by each contributor.

This book would be of interest to the materials specialist, applications engineer, chemist, biotechnologist, and anyone interested in new materials for electronic products.

Editor's comments: These six chapters are based on the review articles in the IEEE Journal as noted above. The review articles have been thoroughly revised and updated. They deal with recent developments in these six areas of electret research. Since the historical background, the specific review literature, and the possible future developments are all discussed in the respective chapters, may it suffice to say electret research follows the trends toward ever smaller device applications, toward better understanding and control of the underlying molecular mechanismas, and toward increased use of optical waves, trends that are common to most fields of electrotechnology and materials science.

Publisher's Comments: Although there have been monographs and proceedings of conferences published on this topic, there had been no cohesive treatment of the entire field of electrets until the original publication of Dr. Sessler's seminal work, Electrets, first editon. Now he and his colleagues, plus younger colleagues who bring a fresh perspective, continue to contribute and update the series by offering this latest comprehensive survey of noteworthy develpments in the field of electrets.

We hope Electrets, 3rd edition, printed in two volumes, will continue the proud tradition of the former editions and be a commendable contribution to the literature of the field.

Editorial Introduction to the Second Volume
Space-Charge Electrets by R. Kressmann, G. M. Sessler and P. Günther
New Electret Materials
Inorganic Materials
Thermally Grown Silicon Dioxide
Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon-Based Layers
Multi-Layer Systems of Silicon-Based Electrets
Sol-Gel Silicon Dioxide
Organic Electrets
Methods for Measuring Charge Distributions
Thermal Methods
Acoustic Methods
Field Method to Measure Mean Charge Depth
AFM Methods
Charge Transport and Charge Decay in Different Electrets
Theoretical Work
Silicon-Based Electrets
Thermally Grown Silicon Dioxide
CVD Silicon Electrets
Sol-Gel Silicon Dioxide
Optical Discharge of Silicon Dioxide
Polymer Electrets
Teflon: PTFE, FEP, PFA, AF
Polyethyleneterephthalate (PETP)
Polyethylene (PE)
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
Polyimide (PI)
Polypropylene (PP)
Other Polymers
Other Materials
Photorefractive Materials
Applications of Space-Charge Electrets
Acoustic Transducers
Air and Gas Filters
Radiation Dosimeters
Electret Coatings for Improved Solar Cells
Carrier-Lifetime Measurements
Data Storage
Further Applications
Distribution and Transport of Charge in Polymers by G. M. Sessler
Methods for Measuring Charge Distributions
Thermal Methods
Acoustic Methods
Optical Methods
Experimental Results
Fluoroethylenepropylene (FEP)
Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
Perfluoroalkoxy (PFA)
Amorphous Fluoropolymer (AF)
Polyethylene (PE)
Polyimide (PI)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polyethyleneterephthalate (PETP)
Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)
Polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) and its Copolymers
Other Polymers
Piezoelectric Polymer Electrets by G. Eberle, H. Schmidt, B. Dehlen and W. Eisenmenger
The PVDF Family
Structure of PVDF and P(VDF-TrFE)
The Ferroelectricity of PVDF
Polarization Reversal and Stability
Switching Experiments
Nature and Origin of Trapped Charges
Thermal Stability of the Polarization
Odd Nylons
Vinylidene-Cyanide Copolymers
Other Polymers
Pyroelectric Polymer Electrets by S. Bauer and S. B. Lang
Pyroelectric Polymers
Amorphous Polymers
Magnitude and Thermal Stability of the Pyroelectric Effect
Photonics Polymers
Fluorinated Polymers
Future Developments
Semicrystalline Polymers
Polyureas and Polythioureas
Future Developments
Crystalline Polymers
Liquid-Crystalline Polymers
Pyroelectric Measurement Techniques
Pyroelectric Relaxation Spectroscopy (PRS) and Thermal Analysis (PTA)
Pyroelectric Depth Profiling of Polarization Distributions
Experimental Techniques and Data Interpretation
Experimental Results
Infrared Detection
Physical Properties and Figures-of-Merit
Freely-Suspended Detectors
Detectors with Silicon Substrates
Photopyroelectric Spectroscopy (PPES)
Theory and Experimental Techniques
Applications of PPES
Miscellaneous Applications
Ferroelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composite Electrets by C. J. Dias and D. K. Das-Gupta
0-3 Connectivity Composites and Their Fabrication
1-3 and 3-3 Connectivity
Models of Ferroelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composite Electrets
Yamada Model for 0-3 Composites
Furukawa Model for 0-3 Composites
Connectivity Approach
Considerations Regarding Poling in Composites
Other Approaches
Dielectric Properties
Relative Permittivity of Composites and Its Mixing Rules
Models of Composite Dielectric Relaxation Behavior
Hysteresis and Remanent Polarization Measurements
Piezoelectric Properties
Introduction and Measurement Methods
Piezoelectric Properties
Composites with an Electroactive Matrix
Composite Pyroelectric Properties
Introduction, Static and Dynamic Measurement Methods
Experimental Results for the Composite Pyroelectric Properties
Composites with a Non-Electroactive Matrix
Composites with an Electroactive Matrix
Comparison between Corona and Conventional Poling
Comparison between Ceramic Powder Morphologies
Dynamic Measurements of the Pyroelectric Coefficient
AC Poling of Composites
Final Remarks on Composite Pyroelectric Properties
Some Applications of Piezo- and Pyroelectric Composite Electrets
Nonlinear Optical Polymer Electrets by S. Bauer-Gogonea and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt
Microscopic and Macroscopic Characteristics of Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Polymers
Materials: Design and Synthesis of Stable Chromophores and Polymers
Poling: Dipole Orientation in an Electric Field
Global Poling of NLO-Polymer Films
Thermal Poling with Electrical Contacts
Corona Poling at Elevated Temperatures
Photo-Induced and All-Optical Poling
Gas-Assisted Poling
Selective Poling across the Film Thickness
Patterned Poling within the Film Plane
In-Plane and Oblique Poling
Electrical Investigation: Electret Techniques for Nonlinear Optical (NLO) Polymers
Optical Investigation: Techniques for NLO and Other Polar Electrets
Refractive Indices and Absorption Coefficients
Pockels Effect and Electro-Absorption
Second-Harmonic Generation
Some Typical Applications
Mode Polarizers and Polarization Converters
Electro-Optical Modulation and Sampling
Optical Rectification and Second-Harmonic Generation (SHG)
Optical Rectification
Phase-Matching Concepts for SHG Waveguide Devices and Their Implementation
Other Applications Based on NLO Phenomena
Subject Index