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Health and Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields

W. Bennett, Jr


viii +189 pages

In this book a distinguished physicist evaluates the properties of low-frequency electromagnetic fields and their interactions with the human body and concludes that the health risks from these interactions have been vastly overstated. Bennett reviews the epidemiological evidence for a link between low-frequency electromagneic fields and cancer. He then reviews the basic properties of these fields, outlining the simple methods for calculating and measuring them and illustrating his discussion with original data on the electromagnetic fields produced by common sources. He considers the specific ways by which electric and magnetic fields couple to the body; compares these fields with others of much greater magnitude that must exist inside the body because of thermodynamic processes; and analyzes several resonance mechanisms that have been proposed to explain unusual sensitivity of biological tissue to low-frequency oscillation fields. A glossary and numerous tables and figures accompany the text.

The Nature of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields
Frequency Spectrum of Electromagnetic Sources
Field Equations and Boundary Conditions
Sources of Low-Frequency Fields
Magnetic Fields
Electric Fields
Natural Sources ot Exposure
The Earth's Magnetic Field
The Earth's Electric Field
Methods of Field Measurement
The Coupling of Electromagnetic Fields to the Body
Interaction of Fields with the Human Body and Biological Materials
Basic Properties of Dielectrics
Permittivity and Conductivity of Biological Materials
The Coupling of Low-Frequency Electric Fields to Conducting Dielectrics
Distortion of the External Electric Field Due to Coupling
The Coupling of Low-Frequency Magnetic Fields to the Body
Electric Fields from the Lorentz Force
Electric Fields from the Faraday Effect
The Coupling of Internal Electric Fields to the Cell Membrane
Natural Sources of Noise
Thermal Noise in the Cell Membrane
Membrane Noise for Long Cylindrical Cells
Large Aggregates of Cells
Observed Interactions with Electromagnetic Fields
Magnetite and Magnetic Fields
Field Effects on the Pineal Gland
Rectification and Nonlinear Processes
Healing Bone Fractures by the Faraday Effect
Resonances and Window Effects
The Lednev Model
Questions for Future Research