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Micromechanics and MEMS Classic and Seminal Papers to 1990

William Trimmer

1997

720 pages

Micromechanics is a rich, diverse field that draws on many different disciplines and has potential applications in medicine, electronic interfaces to physical phenomena, military, industrial controls, consumer products, airplanes, microsatellites, and much more. Until now, papers written during the earlier stages of this field have been difficult to retrieve. The papers included in this volume have been thoughtfully arranged by topic, and are accompanied by section introductions written by renowned expert William Trimmer.

1997, 720 pages

Contents
Acknowledgments and Dedication xi
Introduction xiii
Comments on Writing an Article xv
 
SECTION 1 Early Papers in Micromechanics 1
 
1.1 There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom 3
R. Feynman (Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, March 1992).
1.2 Infinitesimal Machinery 10
R. Feynman (Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, March 1993).
1.3 The Resonant Gate Transistor 21
H. C. Nathanson, W. E. Newell, R. A. Wickstrom, and J. R. Davis, Jr. (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, March 1967).
1.4 Silicon Micromechanical Devices 38
J. B. Angell, S. C. Terry, and P. W. Barth (Scientific American Journal, April 1983).
1.5 Anisotropic Etching of Silicon 50
K. E. Bean (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, October 1978).
1.6 Silicon as a Mechanical Material 58
K. E. Petersen, (Proceedings of the IEEE, May 1982).
1.7 Microrobots and Micromechanical Systems 96
W. S. N. Trimmer (Sensors and Actuators, September 1989).
1.8 Small Machines, Large Opportunities 117
K. Gabriel, J. Jarvis, and W. Trimmer (Report of the NSF Workshop on Microelectromechanical Systems Research, July 1987).
 
SECTION 2 Side Drive Actuators 145
 
2.1 IC-Processed Electrostatic Micro-Motors 147
L-S. Fan, Y-C. Tai, and R. S. Muller (IEEE International Electronic Devices Meeting, December 1988).
2.2 IC-Processed Micro-Motors: Design, Technology, and Testing 151
Y-C. Tai, L-S. Fan, and R. S. Muller (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
2.3 Surface-Micromachining Processes for Electrostatic Microactuator Fabrication 157
T. A. Lober and R. T. Howe (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1988).
2.4 A Study of Three Microfabricated Variable-Capacitance Motors 161,
M. Mehregany, S. F. Bart, L. S. Tavrow, J. H. Lang, S. D. Senturia, and M. F. Schlecht (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors 111, June 1990).
2.S Friction and Wear in Microfabricated Harmonic Side-Drive Motors 168
M. Mehregany, S. D. Senturia, and J. H. Lang (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
2.6 Measurements of Electric Micromotor Dynamics 174
S. F. Bart, M. Mehregany, L. S. Tavrow, J. H. Lang, and S. D. Senturia (Microstructures, Sensors, and Actuators, November 1990).
 
SECTION 3 Comb Drive Actuators 185
 
3.1 Laterally Driven Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures 187
W. C. Tang, T-C. H. Nguyen, and R. T. Howe (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
3.2 Electrostatic-Comb Drive of Lateral Polysilicon Resonators 194
W. C. Tang, T-C.H. Nguyen, M. W. Judy, and R. T. Howe (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors 111, June 1990).
3.3 Electrostatically Balanced Comb Drive for Controlled Levitation 198
W. C. Tang, M. G. Lim, and R. T. Howe (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
3.4 Polysilicon Microgripper 203
C-J. Kim, A. P. Pisano, R. S. Muller, and M. G. Lim (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
 
SECTION 4 Electrostatic Actuators 207
 
4.1 The Principle of an Electrostatic Linear Actuator Manufactured by Silicon Micromachining 209
H. Fujita and A. Omodaka (Transducers '87, The 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, June 1987).
4.2 Design Considerations for a Practical Electrostatic Micro-Motor 213
W. S. N. Trimmer and K. J. Gabriel (Sensors and Actuators, 1987).
4.3 SCOFSS: A Small Cantilevered Optical Fiber Servo System 231
J. E. Wood, S. C. Jacobsen, and K. W. Grace (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
4.4 Microactuators for Aligning Optical Fibers 237
R. Jebens, W. Trimmer, and J. Walker (Sensors and Actuators, November 1989).
4.5 Large Displacement Linear Actuator 246
R. A. Brennen, M. G. Lim, A. P. Pisano, and A. T. Chou (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
4.6 Multi-Layered Electrostatic Film Actuator 251
S. Egawa and T. Higuchi (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
4.7 Movable Micromachined Silicon Plates With Integrated Position Sensing 257
M. G. Allen, M. Scheidl, R. L. Smith, and A. D. Nikolich (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors III, June 1990).
4.8 Micro Electro Static Actuator With Three Degrees of Freedom 261
T. Fukuda and T. Tanaka (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
4.9 The Modelling of Electrostatic Forces in Small Electrostatic Actuators 267
R. H. Price, J. E. Wood, and S. C. Jacobsen (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1988).
4.10 Silicon Electrostatic Motors 272
W. S. N. Trimmer, K. J. Gabriel, and R. Mahadevan (Transducers '87, The 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, June 1987).
4.11 Electrostatic Actuators for Micromechatronics 276
H. Fujita and A. Omodaka (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
4.12 Electric Micromotors: Electromechanical Characteristics 286
J. H. Lang, M. F. Schlecht, and R. T. Howe (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
4.13 Electroquasistatic Induction Micromotors 294
S. F. Bart and J. H. Lang (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
4.14 A Perturbation Method for Calculating the Capacitance of Electrostatic Motors 300
S. Kumar and D. Cho (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
 
SECTION 5 Magnetic Actuators 307
 
5.1 Magnetically Levitated Micro-Machines 309
R. Pelrine and I. Busch-Vishniac (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
5.2 Fabrication and Testing of a Micro Superconducting Actuator Using the Meissner Effect 314
Y-K. Kim, M. Katsurai, and H. Fujita (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
5.3 Room Temperature, Open-Loop Levitation of Microdevices Using Diamagnetic Materials 320
R. E. Pelrine (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
 
SECTION 6 Harmonic Motors 325
 
6.1 An Operational Harmonic Electrostatic Motor 327
W. Trimmer and R. Jebens (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
6.2 The Wobble Motor: An Electrostatic Planetary-Armature, Microactuator 331
S. C. Jacobsen, R. H. Price, J. E. Wood, T. H. Rytting, and M. Rafaelof (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
6.3 An Electrostatic Top Motor and Its Characteristics 339
M. Sakata, Y. Hatazawa, A. Omodaka, T. Kudoh, and H. Fujita (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors III, June 1990).
6.4 Operation of Microfabricated Harmonic and Ordinary Side-Drive Motors 344
M. Mehregany, P. Nagarkar, S. D. Senturia, and J. H. Lang (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
 
SECTION 7 Other Actuators 353
 
Thermal
7.1 Micromechanical Silicon Actuators Based on Thermal Expansion Effects 355
W. Riethmuller, W. Benecke, U. Schnakenberg, and A. Heuberger (Transducers '87, The 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, June 1987).
7.2 CMOS ElectrothermalMicroactuators 359
M. Parameswaran, Lj. Ristic, K. Chau, A. M. Robinson, and W. Allegretto (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
7.3 Electrically-Activated, Micromachined Diaphragm Valves 363
H. Jerman (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
7.4 Study on Micro Engines-Miniaturizing Stirling Engines for Actuators and Heatpumps 368
N. Nakajima, K. Ogawa and I. Fujimasa (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
 
Shape Memory Alloy
7.5 A Micro Rotary Actuator Using Shape Memory Alloys 372
K. J. Gabriel, W. S. N. Trimmer, and J. A. Walker (Sensors and Actuators, 1988).
7.6 Millimeter Size Joint Actuator Using Shape Memory Alloy 379
K. Kuribayashi (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
7.7 Reversible SMA Actuator for Micron Sized Robot 385
K. Kuribayashi and M. Yoshitake (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
7.8 Characteristics of Thin-Wire Shape Memory Actuators 390
P. A. Neukomm, H. P. Bornhauser, T. Hochuli, R. Paravicini, and G. Schwarz (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors III, June 1990).
7.9 Shape Memory Alloy Microactuators 396
M. Bergamasco, P. Dario, and F. Salsedo (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors III, June 1990).
 
Impact
7.10 Micro Actuators Using Recoil of an Ejected Mass 401
T. Higuchi, Y. Hojjat, and M. Watanabe (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleperators Workshop, November 1987).
7.11 Precise Positioning Mechanism Utilizing Rapid Deformations of Piezoelectric Elements 406
T. Higuchi, Y. Yamagata, K. Furutani, and K. Kudoh (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
7.12 Tiny Silent Linear Cybernetic Actuator Driven by Piezoelectric Device With Electromagnetic Clamp 411
K. Ikuta, S. Aritomi, and T. Kabashima (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems '92 February 1992).
7.13 Experimental Model and IC-Process Design of a Nanometer Linear Piezoelectric Stepper Motor 417
J. W. Judy, D. L. Polla, and W. P. Robbins (Microstructures, Sensors, and Actuators, November 1990).
 
Piezoelectric
7.14 Zinc-Oxide Thin Films for Integrated-Sensor Applications 424
D. L. Polla and R. S. Muller (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensors Workshop, June 1986).
7.15 A Micromachined Manipulator for Submicron Positioning of Optical Fibers 427
A. M. Feury, T. L. Poteat, and W. S. Trimmer (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensors Workshop, June 1986).
7.16 Ultrasonic Micromotors: Physics and Applications 428
R. M. Moroney, R. M. White, and R. T. Howe (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
 
SECTION 8 Valves and Pumps 435
 
8.1 A Microminiature Electric-to-Fluidic Valve 437
M. J. Zdeblick and J. B. Angell (Transducers '87, The 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, June 1987).
8.2 The Fabrication of Integrated Mass Flow Controllers 440
M. Esashi, S. Eoh, T. Matsuo, and S. Choi (Transducers '87, The 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, June 1987).
8.3 Normally Close Microvalve and Micropump Fabricated on a Silicon Wafer 444
M. Esashi, S. Shoji, and A. Nakano (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
8.4 A Thermopneumatic Micropump Based on Micro-Engineering Techniques 450
F. C. M. Van de Pol, H. T. G. Van Lintel, M. Elwenspoek, and J. H. J. Fluitman (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors III, June 1990).
8.5 Variable-Flow Micro-Valve Structure Fabricated with Silicon Fusion Bonding 455
F. Pourahmadi, L. Christel, K. Petersen, J. Mallon, and J. Bryzek (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
8.6 A Pressure-Balanced Electrostatically-Actuated Microvalve 459
M. A. Huff, M. S. Mettner, T. A. Lober, and M. A. Schmidt (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
8.7 Micromachined Silicon Microvalve 464
T. Ohnstein, T. Fukiura, J. Ridley, and U. Bonne (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
 
SECTION 9 Fluidics 469
 
9.1 Microminiature Fluidic Amplifier 471
M. J. Zdeblick, P. W. Barth, and J. B. Angell (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
9.2 A Planar Air Levitated Electrostatic Actuator System 473
K. S. J. Pister, R. S. Fearing, and R. T. Howe (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
9.3 Liquid and Gas Transport in Small Channels 478
J. Pfahler, J. Harley, and H. H. Bau (Microstructures, Sensors, and Actuators, November 1990).
9.4 Squeeze-Film Damping in Solid-State Accelerometers 487
J. B. Starr (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
9.5 A Micromachined Floating-Element Shear Sensor 491
M. A. Schmidt, R. T. Howe, S. D. Senturia, and J. H. Haritonidis (Transducers '87, The 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, June 1987).
9.6 A Multi-Element Monolithic Mass Flowmeter With On-Chip CMOS Readout Electronics 495
E. Yoon and K. D. Wise (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
9.7 Environmentally Rugged, Wide Dynamic Range Microstructure Airflow Sensor 499
T. R. Ohnstein, R. G. Johnson, R. E. Higashi, D. W. Burns, J. O. Holmen, E. A'' Satren, G. M. Johnson, R. E. Bicking, and S. D. Johnson (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
 
SECTION 10 Surface Micromachining 503
 
10.1 Polycrystalline Silicon Micromechanical Beams 505
R. T. Howe, R. S. Muller (Journal of the Electrochemical Society: Solid State Science and Technology, June 1983).
10.2 Integrated Fabrication of Polysilicon Mechanisms 509
M. Mehregany, K. J. Gabriel, and W. S. N. Trimer (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, June 1988).
10.3 Integrated Movable Micromechanical Structures for Sensors and Actuators 514
L-S. Fan, Y-C. Tai, and R. S. Muller (IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, June 1988).
10.4 Polysilicon Microbridge Fabrication Using Standard CMOS Technology 521
M. Parameswaran, H. P. Baltes, and A. M. Robinson (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1988).
10.5 Process Integration for Active Polysilicon Resonant Microstructures 524
M. W. Putty, S-C. Chang, R. T. Howe, A. L. Robinson, and K. D. Wise (Sensors and Actuators, November 1989).
10.6 Fabrication of Micromechanical Devices From Polysilicon Films With Smooth Surfaces 532
H. Guckel, J. J. Sniegowski, T. R. Christenson, S. Mohney, and T. F. Kelly (Sensors and Actuators, November 1989).
10.7 Selective Chemical Vapor Deposition of Tungsten for Microelectromechanical Structures 538
N. C. MacDonald, L. Y. Chen, J. J. Yao, Z. L. Zhang, J. A. McMillan, D. C. Thomas, and K. R. Haselton (Sensors and Actuators, November 1989).
 
 
SECTION 11 Bulk Micromachining 549
11.1 Fabrication of Hemispherical Structures Using Semiconductor Technology for Use in Thermonuclear Research 551
K. D. Wise, T. N. Jackson, N. A. Masnari, M. G. Robinson, D. E. Solomon, G. H. Wuttke, and W. B. Rensel (Journal of Vacuum Science Technology, May/June 1979).
11.2 Micromachining of Silicon Mechanical Structures 555
G. Kaminsky (Journal of Vacuum Science Technology, July/August 1985).
11.3 Strings, Loops, and Pyramids-Building Blocks for Microstructures 565
H. H. Busta, A. D. Feinerman, J. B. Ketterson, and R. D. Cueller (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
11.4 Corner Compensation Structures for (110) Oriented Silicon 570
D. R. Ciarlo (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
11.5 A Study on Compensating Corner Undercutting in Anisotropic Etching of (100) Silicon 574
X-P. Wu and W. H. Ko (Transducers '87, The 4th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators, June 1987).
11.6 A New Silicon-on-Glass Process for Integrated Sensors 578
L. J. Spangler and K. D. Wise (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1988).
11.7 Mechanisms of Anodic Bonding of Silicon to Pyrex Glass 582
K. B. Albaugh, P. E. Cade, and D. H. Rasmussen (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1988).
11.8 Silicon Fusion Bonding for Pressure Sensors 584
K. Petersen, P. Barth, J. Poydock, J. Brown, J. Mallon Jr., and J. Bryzek (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1988).
11.9 Low-Temperature Silicon-to-silicon Anodic Bonding With Intermediate Low Melting Point Glass 588
M. Esashi, A. Nakano, S. Shoji, and H. Hebigushi (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors 111, June 1990).
11.10 Fusing Silicon Wafers With Low Melting Temperature Glass 592
L. A. Field and R. S. Muller (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors 111, June 1990).
11.11 Silicon Fusion Bonding for Fabrication of Sensors, Actuators and Microstructures 596
P. W. Barth (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid-State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors 111, June 1990).
11.12 Scaling and Dielectric Stress Compensation of Ultrasensitive Boron-Doped Silicon Microstructures 604
S. T. Cho, K. Najafi, and K. D. Wise (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
11.13 Field Oxide Microbridges, Cantilever Beams, Coils and Suspended Membranes in SACMOS Technology 610
D. Moser, M. Parameswaran, and H. Baltes (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on SolidState Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors 111, June 1990).
11.14 Micromachining of Quartz and its Application to an Acceleration Sensor 614
J. S. Daniel, F. Michel, and G. Delapierre (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors 111, June 1990).
 
 
SECTION 12 LIGA 621
 
12.1 Fabrication of Microstructures using the LIGA Process 623
W. Ehrfeld, P. They, F. Gotz, P. Hagmann, A. Maner, J. Mohr, H. O. Moser, D. Munchmeyer, W. Schelb, D. Schmidt, and E. W. Becker (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
12.2 Deep X-Ray and UV Lithographies for Micromechanics 634
H. Guckel, T. R. Christenson, K. J. Skrobis, D. D. Denton, B. Choi, E. G. Lovell, J. W. Lee, S. S. Bajikar, and T. W. Chapman (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensor and Actuator Workshop, June 1990).
.
SECTION 13 Computer Aided Design 639
 
13.1 OYSTER, a 3D Structural Simulator for Micro Electromechanical Design 641
G. M. Koppelman (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
13.2 A CAD Architecture for Microelectromechanical Systems 647
F. Maseeh, R. M. Harris, and S. D. Senturia (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
13.3 CAEMEMS: An Integrated Computer-Aided Engineering Workbench for Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems 653
S. Crary and Y. Zhang (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
13.4 CAD for Silicon Anisotropic Etching 655
R. A. Buser and N. F. de Rooij (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
 
SECTION 14 Metrology 657
 
14.1 Can We Design Microbotic Devices Without Knowing the Mechanical Properties of Materials? 659
S. D. Senturia (Proceedings IEEE Micro Robots and Teleoperators Workshop, November 1987).
14.2 The Use of Micromachined Structures for the Measurement of Mechanical Properties and Adhesion of Thin Films 664
M. Mehregany, M. G. Allen, and S. D. Senturia (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensors Workshop, June 1986).
14.3 Mechanical Property Measurements of Thin Films Using Load-Deflection of Composite Rectangular Membrane 667
O. Tabata, K. Kawahata, S. Sugiyama, and I. Igarashi (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1989).
14.4 Fracture Toughness Characterization of Brittle Thin Films 672
L. S. Fan, R. T. Howe, and R. S. Muller (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors III, June 1990).
14.5 Spiral Microstructures for the Measurement of Average Strain Gradients in Thin Films 675
L-S. Fan, R. S. Muller, W. Yun, R. T. Howe, and J. Huang (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
14.6 Polysilicon Microstructures to Characterize Static Friction 679
M. G. Lim, J. C. Chang, D. P. Schultz, R. T. Howe, and R. M. White (Proceedings IEEE Micro Electro Mechanical Systems, February 1990).
14.7 Study on the Dynamic Force/Acceleration Measurements 686
A. Umeda and K. Ueda (Transducers '89, Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Solid State Sensors and Actuators and Eurosensors III, June 1990).
14.8 Anomalous Emissivity from Periodic Micro Machined Silicon Surfaces 690
P. J. Hesketh, B. Gebhart, and J. N. Zemel (Technical Digest IEEE Solid-State Sensors Workshop, June 1986).
 
AUTHOR INDEX 693
SUBJECT INDEX 697
ABOUT THE AUTHOR 701
 
EDITOR'S NOTES ON THE SECOND PRINTING 702