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Handbook of Electrical and Electronic Insulating Materials, 2nd ed.

W. T. Shugg

1995

xxx + 578 pages

This authoritative second edition is not intended for storage on a library shelf. Rather, it is designed as a desk volume to provide quickly accessible data, design input, comparisons, standards, and suppliers for insulating systems and materials. This is the only single source devoted to all classes of insulators for electrical and electronic applications, offering immediate and easy access to detailed information in one easy-to-use source. Classifications include: Major producers, technologies and methods of manufacture, trade names, applicable standards and specs., properties and uses, development programs and market trends. This book will be invaluable to electrical and electronic engineers who need to make informed choices about dielectric and electrical insulation materials as well as technologies in related fields

Contents
Fundamentals:
Introduction
U.S. and International Standards
Insulation Systems and Service Life
UL Standards for Insulation Systems
Material Aging and Breakdown
Partial Discharge (Corona)
Space Charges
Radiation
Dipole Moment and Polarization
Material Selection Steps
Temperature Index of Dielectric Materials
Standard Tests for Dielectric Materials
SI System for Metric Practice (ASTM E 380)
Thermoplastic Molding Compounds:
Definitions of Terms Relating to Plastics
Plastics Industry
Engineering Thermoplastics
Polymerization
Reinforcements and Fillers
Flame Retardants
Antioxidants
Ultraviolet Stabilizers
Injection Molding
Standard Tests:
Practice for Conditioning Plastics and Electrical Insulating Materials for Testing (ASTM D 618)
Specific Gravity and Density (ASTM D 792)
Dielectric Strength (ASTM D 149)
Dielectric Constant, Permittivity, Specific Inductive Capacity (ASTM D 150)
Dissipation Factor, Loss Tangent, Tan Delta (8) (ASTM D 150)
Electrical Resistance (ASTM D 257)
Arc Resistance (ASTM D 495)
Water Absorption (ASTM D 570)
Deflection Temperature (ASTM D 648)
Tensile Properties (ASTM D 638)
Izod Impact Resistance (ASTM D 256)
Flammability (UL 94)
The Oxygen Index (0I) (ASTM D 2863)
Maximum Service Temperature of Thermoplastic Polymers
Relative Costs of Thermoplastic Polymers
Alloys
Liquid Crystal Polymers (LCPS)
Conducting Polymers
Development Programs
Market Trends
Summary of Rankings of Thermoplastic Polymers
Principal Thermoplastic Polymers for Electrical/Electronic Uses
Acetals: Homopolymer
Acetals: Copolymer
Acrylic (PMMA)
Amide Polymers: Nylon 6/6
Amide Polymers: Nylon 11
Imide Polymers: Polyamide-Imide (PAl)
Imide Polymers: Polyetherimide (PEl)
Polyarylate (PAR)
Polybutylene Terephthalate (PBT)
Polycarbonate (PC)
Polyetheretherketone (PEEK)
Polyphenylene Ether, Modified (PPE)
Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS)
Polypropylene (PP)
Styrenics: Polystyrene (PS)
Styrenics: Styrene-Butadiene
Styrenics: Styrene-Acrylonitrile (SAN)
Styrenics: Acrylonitri le-Butadiene-Styrene (ABS)
Sulfone Polymers: Polysulfone
Sulfone Polymers: Polyethersulfone (PES)
Thermosetting Molding Compounds:
Thermosetting Plastics Consumed in Electrical/Electronic Applications
Polymerization and Polycondensation
Reinforcements and Fillers, Antioxidants, Ultraviolet Stabilizers
Compression Molding
Transfer Molding
Injection Molding
Standard Tests
Relative Costs of Thermosetting Compounds
Development Programs
Market Trends
Ranking of Thermosetting Compounds by Key Properties
Federal Specification MlL-M-14
Principal Thermosetting Compounds for Electrical/Electronic Uses:
Alkyds/Polyesters
Allyls
Aminos
Epoxies
Phenolics/Furfurals
Extrusion Compounds:
Conductors
Temperature Coefficient of Resistance
Ampacity
Insulated Conductor Design
Flooding and Filling Compounds
Fire Hazards
Treeing
Production Processes for Polymers
Extrusion Process
Standard Tests
UL Standards for Wire and Cable
Comparative Properties of Extruded Insulations
Development Programs
Market Trends
Principal Extrusion Polymers for Electrical/Electronic Uses:
Fluoropolymers
Ethylene Polymers (PE)
Propylene Polymers (PP)
Polyurethane Polymers (PUR)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Silicone Rubber
Organic Elastomers
Embedding Compounds:
Critical Properties
Fillers
Federal Specification MlL-I-1 6923
ASTM Standard for Embedding Compounds
Embedding Processes
Curing Systems
Development Programs
Market Trends
Comparative Characteristics of Encapsulants
Principal Embedding Polymers for Electrical/Electronic Uses
Epoxies
Polyesters
Polyurethanes (PURs)
Silicones
Magnet Wire Enamels:
Coil Manufacture
Bondable Magnet Wire
Magnet Wire Manufacture
NEMA Standard and Federal Specification for Magnet Wires
ASTM Standards for Film-Insulated Magnet Wire
Processing Wire Enamel
Magnet Wire Thermal Classification
Magnet Wire Enamel Testing
Development Programs
Market Trends
Comparative Characteristics of Magnet Wires
Magnet Wire Data
Magnet Wire Manufacturers
Basic Wire Enamel Types:
Plain Enamel
Polyvinyl Formal
Polyurethane (PUR)
Nylon
Epoxy
Polyester
Polyamide-Imide (PAl)
Polyester-Amide-lmide
Polyester-lmide (PEl)
Polyimide (PI)
Insulating Coatings and Impregnants:
Suppliers of Coatings and Impregnants
Dielectric Stresses
Critical Properties
Thermal Classification of Coatings and Impregnants
Federal Specifications and Practices
ASTM Standards for Electrical Insulating Varnishes
UL Standard 1446, Systems of Insulating Materials-General
Application Methods
DeveIopment Programs
Market Trends
Inherent Characteristics of Coating and Impregnating Varnishes
Principal Types of Coatings and Impregnants:
Early Oleoresinous Insulating Varnishes
Alkyd Polyesters
Unsaturated Polyesters
Epoxies
Parylene
Phenolics
Polyurethanes (PURs)
Silicones
Unclad and Clad Structures:
UNCLAD STRUCTURES:
Reinforcements
Resins
Development Programs
Market Trends
Principal Unclad Structures for Electrical/Electronic Uses:
Unclad High-Pressure Thermoset Laminates
Polyester Glass Mat Laminates
Sheet Molding Compound (SMC)
Pultrusion
CLAD STRUCTURES:
Suppliers
Technology
Substrates for Printed Circuits
Semiconductor Silicon
Copper Foils
Adhesives
Covercoats
Multi layer Circuits
Flexible Circuits
Federal Specifications for Printed Circuits
IPC Specifications for Printed Circuits
ASTM Standards for Copper-Clad Thermoset Laminates
UL Standard for Printed Wiring Boards
Development Programs
Market Trends
Dielectric Film:
Technology
ASTM Standard for Testing Films
Federal Specification for Films
Development Programs
Market Trends
Dielectric Films:
Cellulose Acetate (CA)
Fluoropolymers
Imide Polymers: Polyetherimide (PEl)
Imide Polymers: Polyimide (PI)
lonomer
Polycarbonate (PC)
Polyester (PET)
Polyethylene (PE)
Polyparabanic Acid (PPA)
Polypropylene (PP)
Polystyrene (PS)
Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC)
Sulfone Polymers: Polysulfone
Sulfone Polymers: Polyethersulfone
Dielectric Papers and Boards:
Development Programs
Market Trends
Dielectric Papers and Boards
Cellulose Papers and Boards
Vulcanized Fibre and Fish Paper
Aramid Papers and Boards
Mica Paper
Other Papers and Boards
Tapes and Coated Fabric:
PRESSURE-SENSITIVE TAPES:
Suppliers of Pressure-Sensitive Tapes
Technology:
Natural and Synthetic Rubber Adhesives
Silicone Rubber Adhesives
Acrylic Adhesives
Block Copolymer Adhesives
Processing
Adhesion Tests for Pressure-Sensitive Tapes
Grades
ASTM Standards for Electrical Insulating Pressure-Sensitive Tapes
Federal Specifications for Electrical Insulating Pressure-Sensitive Tapes
UL Standard for Insulating Tapes
Properties
Tape Selection
Electrical/Electronic Uses
Development Programs
Market Trends
NONADHESIVE TAPES AND COATED FABRICS:
Suppliers of Nonadhesive Tape and Coated Fabrics
Technology
Processing
Grades
ASTM Standards for Nonadhesive Tapes and Coated Fabrics
Federal Specifications for Nonadhesive Tapes and Coated Fabrics
NEMA/lCEA Standard for Varnished Cloth Insulated Wire and Cable
Properties
Electrical/Electronic Uses
Development Programs
Market Trends
Tubing and Sleeving:
INSULATING TUBING:
Producers of Extruded Tubing UL Approved
Technology
Grades
ASTM Standards for Electrical Insulating Tubing
Federal Specifications for Electrical Insulating Tubing
Properties
Electrical/Electronic Uses
Development Programs
Market Trends
INSULATING SLEEVING:
Producers of Coated Sleeving UL Approved
Technology
Grades
ASTM Standards for Electrical Insulating Sleeving
Federal Specification for Electrical Insulating Sleeving
Properties
Electrical/Electronic Uses
Development Programs
Market Trends
Mica and Mica Products:
Technology and Grades
Synthetic Mica
Properties
Electrical/Electronic Uses
Built-Up Mica
Mica Paper Products
Thermal Classification of Mica Products
ASTM Standard for Bonded Mica Products
Federal Specifications for Mica Products
Glass-Bonded Mica
Development Programs
Market Trends
Ceramic and Glass Insulations:
Chemistry
Grades
Processing
ASTM Standards for Electrical Insulating Ceramics
Properties:
Thermal Properties
Physical Properties
Dielectric Properties
Summary of Properties and Uses
Development Programs
Market Trends
Dielectric Gases:
Technology:
Breakdown in Gases
Paschen's Law
Electrode Condition and Configuration
Conducting Particles
Moisture
Chemistry
Grades
ASTM Standards for Dielectric Gases
Properties:
Toxicity
Arcing
Chemical and Thermal Stability
Thermal Properties
Critical Constants
Boiling Temperatures
Dielectric Constant
Compatibility
Availability
Properties of SF6
Gas Mixtures
Electrical/Electronic Uses
Development Programs
Market Trends
References for Further Reading
Dielectric Liquids:
Technology
Chemistry
Grades
Processing
Significance of Functional Properties of Mineral Insulating Oil:
Physical Properties
Dielectric Properties
Chemical Properties
ASTM Standards for Dielectric Liquids
Properties:
Toxicity
Flammability
Purity, Inertness, and Chemical and Thermal Stability
Arcing
Water Content
Dielectric Properties
Heat Transfer Rate
Compatibility
Availability and Price
Electrical/Electronic Uses
Newer Capacitor Dielectric Liquids
Development Programs
Market Trends
Industry Activities:
American National Standards Institute (ANSI)
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
Association of Edison Illuminating Companies (AElC)
Edison Electric Institute (EEl)
Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)
Electrical Apparatus Service Association (EASA)
Electrical Manufacturing and Coil Winding Association (EMCWA)
Electronic Industries Association (ElA)
Institut De Reserche D'Hydro-Que'bec (I REQ)
The Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Electronic Circuits (lPC)
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Insulated Cable Engineers Association (lCEA)
International Conference on Large High Voltage Electrical Systems (CIGRE')
The International Electrotechnical Commission (lEC)
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)
Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE)
Society of the Plastics Industry (SPI)
Underwriters Laboratories (UL)
Conferences/Symposiums
Publications
Government Activities:
Worker Safety and Health
Hazard Communication Standard
OSHA Regional Offices
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA)
Federal Air Pollution Program
Federal Water Pollution Program
EPA Regional Offices
National Institute of Standards and Technology (N IST)
National Center for Standards and Certification Information (NCSCl)
Rural Electrification Administration (REA)
U.S. Government Specifications
U.S. Government Printing Office
General Services Administration (GSA)
The Naval Publications and Forms Center
Polyamide-Imide Military Specification MlL-P-461 79
Appendix
Conversion Factors for Frequently Used Units:
Measures and Weights
Pressure
Volume
Density
Temperature Formulas
Temperature Equivalents
Industry and Federal Standards and Specifications
American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Specification
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Test Methods
Association of Edison Illuminating Companies (AElC) Standard
Federal (Military) Specifications
Institute for Interconnecting and Packaging Circuits (IPC) Specifications
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)/Insulated Cable Engineers Association (ICEA) Joint Standards Publications
National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) Standards