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Fundamentals of Microfabrication: The Science of Miniaturization, 2nd. ed.

Marc J. Madou, Nanogen, Inc., San Diego, CA

2002

608 pages

MEMS technology and applications have grown at a tremendous pace, while structural dimensions have grown smaller and smaller, reaching down even to the molecular level. With this movement have come new types of applications and rapid advances in the technologies and techniques needed to fabricate the increasingly miniature devices that are literally changing our world.

A bestseller in its first edition, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition reflects the many developments in methods, materials, and applications that have emerged recently. Renowned author Marc Madou has added exercise sets to each chapter, thus answering the need for a textbook in this field.

Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition offers unique, in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials. From the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering, it provides the background, tools, and directions you need to confidently choose fabrication methods and materials for a particular miniaturization problem.

New in the Second Edition:

Features:

Contents
LITHOGRAPHY

Introduction
Historical Note: Lithography's Origins
Photolithography Overview
Critical Dimension, Overall Resolution, Line-Width
Lithographic Sensitivity and Intrinsic Resist Sensitivity (Photochemical Quantum Efficiency)
Resist Profiles
Contrast and Experimental Determination of Lithographic Sensitivity
Resolution in Photolithography
Photolithography Resolution Enhancement Technology
Beyond Moore's Law
Next Generation Lithographies
Emerging Lithography Technologies

PATTERN TRANSFER WITH DRY ETCHING TECHNIQUES

Introduction
Dry Etching: Definitions and Jargon
Plasmas or Discharges
Physical Etching: Ion Etching or Sputtering and Ion-Beam Milling
Plasma Etching (Radical Etching)
Physical/Chemical Etching
 
PATTERN TRANSFER WITH ADDITIVE TECHNIQUES

Introduction
Silicon Growth
Doping of Si
Oxidation of Silicon
Physical Vapor Deposition
Chemical Vapor Deposition
Silk-Screening or Screen-Printing
Sol-Gel Deposition Technique
Doctors' Blade or Tape Casting
Plasma Spraying
Deposition and Arraying Methods of Organic Layers in BIOMEMS
Thin versus Thick Film Deposition
Selection Criteria for Deposition Method

WET BULK MICROMACHINING

Introduction
Historical Note
Silicon Crystallography
Silicon As Substrate
Silicon As A Mechanical Element In MEMS
Wet Isotropic And Anisotropic Etching
Alignment Patterns
Chemical Etching Models
Etching With Bias And/Or Illumination Of The Semiconductor
Etch-Stop Techniques
Problems With Wet Bulk Micromachining

SURFACE MICROMACHINING
Introduction
Historical Note
Mechanical Properties of Thin Films
Surface Micromachining Processes
Poly-Si Surface Micromachining Modifications
Non-Poly-Si Surface Micromachining Modifications
Materials Case Studies
 
LIGA AND MICROMOLDING
Introduction
LIGA-Background
LIGA and LIGA-Like Process Steps

A COMPARISON OF MINIATURIZATION TECHNIQUES: TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP MANUFACTURING
Introduction
Absolute and Relative Tolerance in Manufacturing
Historical Note: Human Manufacturing
Section I: Top-Down Manufacturing Methods
Section II: Bottom-Up Approaches

MODELING, BRAINS, PACKAGING, SAMPLE PREPARATION AND NEW MEMS MATERIALS
Introduction
Modeling
Brains In Miniaturization
Packaging
Substrate Choice

SCALING, ACTUATORS, AND POWER IN MINIATURIZED SYSTEMS
Introduction
Scaling
Actuators
Fluidics
Scaling In Analytical Separation Equipment
Other Actuators
Integrated Power

MINIATURIZATION APPLICATIONS
Introduction
Definitions and Classification Method
Decision Three

OVERALL MARKET For MICROMACHINES
Introduction
Why Use Miniaturization Technology ?
From Perception to Realization
Overall MEMS Market Size
MEMS Market Character
MEMS Based on Si
Non-Silicon MEMS
MEMS versus Traditional Precision Engineering
The Times are a'Changing

APPENDICES
Metrology Techniques
WWW Linkpage
Etch Rate for Si, SiO2
Summary of Top-Down Miniaturization Tools
Listing of names of 20 amino acids & their chemical formulas; Genetic code
Summary of Materials and Their Properties for Microfabrication
References for Detailed Market Information on Miniature Devices
MEMS Companies Update
Suggested Further Reading
Glossary
Symbols used in Text

INDEX

Each chapter also contains sections of examples and problems

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