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The Optics of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals

S. J. Elston and J. R. Sambles, eds.

1998

256 pages

This book incorporates research-level developments and perspectives in optics from a materials science and physics viewpoint, as well as exploring defect structures and non- linear optics. The editors also address the fundamental physics of commonly experienced LCDs, reviewing the important, now well-established nematic structures and covering the emergent new areas of ferroelectrics and electroclinics.

Contents
Introduction:
Background
The ESD Problem
Protecting against ESD
Outline of the Book
References
ESD Phenomena and Test Methods:
Introduction
Human Body Model (HBM)
Machine Model (MM)
Charged Device Model (CDM)
Comparisons between the Test Methods
Transmission Line Test Method
Other Test Methods
Failure Criteria
Test Procedures
References
Physics and Operation of ESD Protection Circuit Elements
Introduction
Resistors
Diodes:
Forward bias
Reverse bias
p-i-n Diode
Transistor Operation:
Bipolar transistors
MOS transistors
Avalanche conditions
Transistor Operation under ESD Conditions:
Bipolar transistors
MOS transistors
SCR Operation
References
Design and Layout Requirements
Introduction
Design Concepts:
Thick field device
nMOS transistors (FPDs)
Gate-coupled nMOS (GCNMOS)
SCR protection devices
ESD Protection Design Synthesis:
SCR primary protection
Secondary protection devices Field plate diode Isolation resistor
Protection scheme
Total Input Protection:
Inputs with diffusion resistor
Inputs with polysilicon resistor
Polysilicon resistor reliability
Input/Output Buffer Layout and Protection
Selecting a Protection Circuit
Bipolar and BiCMOS Protection Circuits:
Introduction
Protection circuit strategies
Bipolar/BiCMOS output protection
Bipolar/BiCMOS input protection
Layout
ESD and performance trade-offs
Summary
References
Failure Modes, Reliability Issues and Case Studies:
Introduction
Failure Mode Analysis:
Failure analysis techniques
Electrical characteristics after damage
Physical analysis of failure modes
Reliability and Performance Considerations
Advanced CMOS Input Protection
Optimizing the Input Protection Scheme
Designs for Special Applications
Process Effects on Input Protection Design
Total IC Chip Protection
Power Bus Protection
Internal Chip ESD Damage:
Vdd ­ Vss Stress current damage
Output to Vdd stress
Stress Dependent ESD Behavior
Summary
References
Modeling and Characterization:
Introduction
The Physics of ESD Damage
Thermal (Second) Breakdown
Analytical Models Using the Heat Equation
Electrothermal Simulations
Circuit Simulations
References
Influence of Processing on ESD:
Introduction
Source/Drain Junction Effects
Gate Oxides
Contacts and Silicidation
Wells, Epitaxial Thickness and Substrate Resistance:
Wells
Epitaxial thickness
Substrate resistance
Silicon-On-Insulator (SOl)
Packaging
References
Conclusions
Long-term Relevance of ESD in ICs
State-of-the-Art for ESD Protection
Current Limitations
Future Issues
References