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Organic Photoreceptors for Imaging Systems

Paul M. Borsenberger, David F. Weiss

1993

xvi + 447 pages

There have been many studies of photoelectronic phenomena in organic solids in the past three decades. These have resulted in a very considerable level of fundamental understanding of the relationships between the structure of these materials and the photoelectronic properties. This has led to the development of many new and improved materials for xerography. The purpose of this book is to review these developments. This book describes the use of organic photoreceptors for xerography. The xerographic process and the photoelectronic properties of organic materials are reviewed. The preparation of organic photoreceptors is described, followed by a review of the xerographic sensitometry of different classes of organic materials. The emphasis of the book is directed to the photoelectronic properties of organic solids and a comparison of these properties with the requirements of the xerographic process.

This unique reference covers in detail the preparation and application of current and emerging organic materials used as xerographic photoreceptors, emphasizing the photoelectronic properties of organic solids and evaluating their potential use in xerography. Reviewing the development of xerography and the steps in the xerographic process, Organic Photoreceptors for Imaging Systems summarizes the properties, advantages, and disadvantages of various classes of materials used as photoreceptors ... descnbes methods of characterizing the sensitometry of xerographic photoreceptors ...examines the physics and chemistry of photogeneration and charge transport processes . . . elucidates the sensitometry of different classes of organic materials . . .and much more!

With over 1750 recent bibliographic citations and more than 270 explanatory tables and figures, Organic Phdoreceptors for Imaging Systems is a practical resource for imaging scientists, optical engineers and physicists, organic chemists, materials scientists, and graduate-level and continuing-education students in these disciplines. The scope of this subject is such that it is limited the treatment to properties relevant to xerography. AC phenomena and charge transport in crystalline solids are not discussed. Spectroscopies, synthetic techniques, and chemical methods of characterization are discussed only in specific cases. Finally, photoreceptors used in current applications are not reviewed, nor is the patent literature discussed. While there are many references to patents in the book, the coverage is not intended to be inclusive.

Contents
Preface
Symbols and Nomenclature
 
Introduction
Early Developments
Electrophotographic Processes
Xerography
Alternative Processes
Summary
References
 
Xerographic Photoreceptors
Introduction
Chalcogenide Glasses
Organic Materials
Amorphous Silicon
Summary
References
 
Charge Acceptance and Dark Discharge
Introduction
Models
Charge Acceptance
Dark Discharge
Results
Summary
References
 
Photoinduced Discharge
Introduction
Continuous Exposures
Emission-Limited Discharge
Space-Charge-Limited Discharge
Flash Exposures
Trapping
Recombination
Sensitometry
References
 
Photogeneration Theories
Introduction
Surface-Enhanced Exciton Dissociation
Geminate Recombination
The Poole-Frenkel Effect
The Onsager Formalism
Time Dependent Models
Energetic and Positional Disorder
Summary
References
 
Photogeneration in Organic Solids
Introduction
Results
Phthalocyanines
Polyarylenes
Polymers
Other Materials of Interest
Summary
References
 
Charge Tansport Theories
Introduction
Trapping and Kinetic Rate Arguments
The Poole-Frenkel Effect
Kinetic Rate Models
The Dipole Trap
The Bassler Formalism
Polarons
Dispersive Transport
The Einstein Relationship
The Scher-Montroll Formalism
Multiple Trapping
The Bassler Formalism
Other Arguments
Lattice Gas and Percolation
Summary
References
 
Charge Transport in Polymers and Related Materials
Introduction
Hole Transport
Arylalkanes
Arylamines
Hydrazones
Poly(phenylenevinylene)s
Polysilylenes (Polysilanes) and Polygermylenes
Poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) and Related Compounds
Pyrazolines
Other Materials of Interest
Electron Transport
Diphenoquinones
Poly (N-vinylcarbazole): 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone Charge-Transfer Complexes
Other Materials of Interest
Bipolar Transport
Aggregate Materials
Donor and Acceptor Doped Polymers
Other Materials of Interest
Summary
References
 
Experimental Techniques
Introduction
Photogeneration Phenomena
Transient Photocurrent Measurements
Photoinduced Discharge Measurements
Photoacoustical Measurements
Field-Enhanced Fluorescence Quenching Methods
Transport Phenomena
Transient Photocurrent Measurements
Transient Photoinduced Discharge Measurements
Other Methods
Deconvolution Techniques
References
 
Photoreceptor Preparation I. Structure and Configuration
Fabrication Techniques
Solvent Coating Techniques
Pigment Coating Techniques
Novel Fabrication Methods
Physical Characterization and Chemical Analysis References
 
Photoreceptors
Introduction
Azo Pigments
Synthesis and Characterization
Photoreceptors
Molecular Complexes
Dye-Polymer Complexes
Charge-Transfer Complexes
Perylene Pigments
Synthesis and Characterization
Photoreceptors
Phthalocyanine Pigments
Synthesis and Characterization
Photoreceptors
Squaraine Pigments
Synthesis and Characterization
Photoreceptors
Other Materials of Interest
Summary
References
 
Fatigue
Introduction
Results
Trapping
Corona-Induced Phenomena
Effects of Humidity
Radiation-Induced Effects
Summary
References
 
Summary and Future Requirements
References
Appendices
Index
Polymers
Generation Materials
Transport Materials